The Hebron/Besor and Nablus/Alexander Streams Project
This unique experiment focused on two transboundary basins – the Hebron/Besor and Nablus/Alexander Streams – chosen as representatives of over ten streams that originate in land under the jurisdiction of the PA and flow into Israel. In a few cases, such as the Kidron or the Besor itself (that discharges inside the Gaza Strip), the roles are reversed with the Palestinians receiving Israeli discharges downstream. Regardless of flow direction, most transboundary streams are characterized by widespread pollution from Palestinian sources (typically raw sewage), as well as from Israeli sources.
The unabated pollution harms adjacent and in-stream ecosystems, contaminates ground water and constitutes a general aesthetic and health hazard. Management of these natural resources presents a special problem because of the complex security situation and its effect on the relations between the two governments. Joint management is required, but for the foreseeable future, cooperation requires considerable determination and resourcefulness.
The study aimed to:
- Profile both the specific and non-specific pollution sources in transboundary streams;
- Initiate a basin-wide network to monitor chemical and biological parameters in transboundary streams;
- Profile the various processes and causes of change in water quality of transboundary streams; and
- Propose optimal rehabilitation strategies based on the use of a computerized hydrological model and economic analyses of transboundary streams.
Red Sea Dead Sea Conveyance Project
This study is a part of the World Bank’s two year Study Program on the feasibility of the Red Sea Dead Sea conduit, whose overall objective is to evaluate the conveyance of water from the Red Sea to the Dead Sea as a possible way to address environmental degradation of the Dead Sea Region and to examine the possibility of seawater desalination and energy production within the scope of the project. For more information, visit the World Bank’s Red Sea Dead Sea Project website.
GLOWA Jordan River (GLOWA JR)
Mitigating Transboundary Wastewater Conflicts
From 2012 to 2015, the United States Agency for International Development (USAID) funded the Center of Transboundary Water Management (CTWM) through their Conflict Management and Mitigation Program at the West Bank/Gaza USAID Mission. CTWM’s grant, Mitigating Transboundary Wastewater Conflict, had the objective of aiding in reducing wastewater pollution while increasing water supply to households and communities located outside of the region’s wastewater treatment network.